The effect of Nada Chikitsa (Music Therapy) on Non-Invasive Continuos Cardiac Output and peripheral blood flow parameters and quality of life measures

Kavita Renduchintala, BS; Phanisree Pydimarri, MD; Ramaprabhu Vemapti, PhD University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, SGS Hospital, Avadhoota Datta Peetham, Mysore, India , Wellpark College of Natural Therapies, Auckland, New Zealand

Nada Chikitsa (Music Therapy) is an interpersonal process in which a trained music therapist uses music to help patients improve or maintain their health. Music therapists help patients improve their level of functioning and self-reported quality of life in various domains (e.g., cognitive functioning, motor skills, behavior and social skills) by using music experiences (e.g., singing, listening, moving to music) to achieve measurable treatment goals and objectives.

The Raga Ragini System of Indian Classical music is a specialized healing technique, currently being used by Sri Ganapathi Sachchidananda Swamiji, Pontiff, Avadhoota Datta Peetham, Mysore in a modified method corresponding to the client/patient’s Raasi (Zodiac Sign), temperament, and disease condition by playing a chosen Healing Raga (Tune).

There were many studies supporting music therapy as an adjuvant therapy in producing positive health-related outcomes in cardiac rehabilitation patients; however, this pilot study was aimed to establish evidence with measures of physiological and psychological outcomes.

There were many studies supporting music therapy as an adjuvant therapy in producing positive health-related outcomes in cardiac rehabilitation patients; however, this pilot study was aimed to establish evidence with measures of physiological and psychological outcomes.

Methods

Participants

There were 60 subjects screened initially and 17 were excluded because they did not match inclusion criteria. Therefore, 43 total subjects were enrolled (average age 54 ± 13 yr) for the study who were required to commit to either a daily session of music intervention for at least four days in one week (daily music therapy, DMT; n=17; average age 54.6 ± 17.5 yr) or a four week once-a-week music intervention session (weekly music therapy, WMT; n=19; average age 56.3 ± 8.4 yr). There was a control group of 7 subjects (CG, average age 48.1± 8.6 yr).

The data was collected at the SGS Hospital Music Therapy Centre, Avadhoota Datta Peetham, Mysore, India.

Interventions

Healing tunes were played from a unique composition “Pancha Tattva Raga Malika” corresponding to the five elements of nature- earth, water, fire, air, and ether. Each session with DMT, WMT, or CG participants lasted for 30 min. CG subjects were asked to rest and focus on breathing without listening to music

Parameters

On the first and last day of study period, all subjects were given a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperative Information Functional Health Assessment (COOP) questionnaire, Visual Analog Pain Scale (VAPS) pre and post of each session, and cardio-physiological parameters such as Heart Rate Variability (HRV), Cardiac Output Variability (COV), and Blood Flow Variability (BFV)/Stroke Volume Variability (SVV) by using Nivomon (Non-invasive Continuous Cardiac Output & Peripheral Blood Flow Monitor) series equipment based on impedance plethysmography, manufactured by Larsen & Toubro Limited (India) with a technology transfer from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India.

Results

Due to dropouts, only 33 subjects’ (DMT = 11; WMT = 15; CG = 7) STAI, COOP, and PAS data was analyzed for statistical purposes. The data was analyzed based on the distribution of the data (parametric and non-parametric) by using appropriate statistical methods.

There were decreased levels of STAI scores in both DMT and WMT subjects as compared with control group and improved COOP scores of overall health and its sub-domains. Pain analog scores were reduced significantly after the music therapy session in both DMT and WMT subjects with a higher magnitude in the daily group. All the Cardiac Output & Peripheral Blood Flow parameters showed sympatho-vagal balance with more parasympathetic dominance.